Cafe Scientific, Southampton, UK, past talks

Latest update of this file 11 May, 2018

Some details on past SWA science cafe talks in 2010 , including transcripts of talks and Q&A
Some details on SWA science cafe talks of later 2011
Some details on SWA science cafe talks of early 2011
Some details on SWA science cafe talks of early 2012
Some details on SWA science cafe talks of mid 2012
Some details on SWA science cafe talks of end 2012, including transcripts of talks and Q&A
Some details on SWA science cafe talks of early 2013, including transcripts of talks and Q&A
Some details on SWA science cafe talks of mid 2013, including transcripts of talks and Q&A
Some details on SWA science cafe talks of late 2013, including transcripts of talks and Q&A
Some details on SWA science cafe talks of early 2014, including transcripts of talks and Q&A
Some details on SWA science cafe talks of mid 2014, including transcripts of talks and Q&A
Some details on SWA science cafe talks of end 2014, including transcripts of talks and Q&A
Some details on SWA science cafe talks of early 2015, including transcripts of talks and Q&A
Some details on SWA science cafe talks of mid 2015, including transcripts of talks and Q&A
Some details on SWA science cafe talks of end 2015, including transcripts of talks and Q&A
Some details on SWA science cafe talks of early 2016, including transcripts of talks and Q&A
Some details on SWA science cafe talks of mid 2016, including transcripts of talks and Q&A
Some details on SWA science cafe talks of end 2016, including transcripts of talks and Q&A
Some details on SWA science cafe talks of early 2017, including transcripts of talks and Q&A
Some details on SWA science cafe talks of mid 2018, including transcripts of talks and Q&A
Some details on SWA science cafe talks of end 2017, including transcripts of talks and Q&A
To return to the main "4mg" Soton Sci Cafe file
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Some summaries etc of past talks held at the venue, Sothwestern Arms and St Denys Community Centre
Some hosts are not alowing remote linking now , so to view a "forbidden" picture you have to right click on the mouse and select "view". Not verbatim, and there will be homonyms, transcription, transliteration, typing and spelling errors and misattributions in the following write-ups, and also untranscribed potential litigious stuff that sometimes emerges. Q&A , grouped under one "Q" or ? terminator tend to be dialogue with / multiple questions from one enquirer. ? for unheard / masked words , ??? for phrases.

08 January 2018 , Simon Protheroe , Hampshire County Council : Highway Maintainence, , an overview. 19 people, 2 hours I'm a highways engineer with Hampshire Highways dept. I'p part of the routine maintainence group, reactive maintainence, we get the pot hole treports, issues with vegetation , flooding and drainage. We're the eyes on te ground to resolve any issues that occur. History of this starts from tackways that have bev=come such by ueage. A lot of our current highways have evolved through this pre-existing structure. The Romans were the first to introduce a full , proper highway layout, with a proper construction matrix and plans. A pic of a Roman road, doing well considering its age, Sian Helen ? in South Wales. The Highways Act of 1555 introduced the rights of a person to pass without hindrance over a piece of land. That is the definition of an English highway, common-law definition , not qritten down anywhere but it is enacted by law. In 1555 every Parish was enabled to have 2 highway surveyors, which over 4 days each year, between Easter and 24 June had to oversee the entire parish workforce, fit and able-bodied , men women and children to do HM. The parishes were responsible for all the highways within their parish, whether major trunk road beetween towns or just a local trackway. The parishes had no resource and very little power or money to do this maintsinence. So lobbying was done for turnpikes, toll roads that enabled small companies to be set up , to pay a toll to, to do this HM. Only 3 or 4 miles a time, rare a turnpike corporation would have 20 miles at the very maximum. Over the course of 150 years, turnpikes were the only way to be maintained. This only applied to the major link roads and some arterial routes around places like London. In 1888 The Local Government Act, counties would take HM off the parishes. Also applied to districts and burroughs, that has remained such. Roman Paving , the foundation is made of large boulders, designed not to fit together, includes lots of voids, allowing the roadbase to drain water away. Smaller layer of compacted stone, higher up , that are impermeable. They are protested by a layer of flagstones on top. Roman paving was constructed well and does survive well. It did require maintainence and when the romans left, many roads fell into disrepair. THomas Telford had an original idea, he introduced capstones at the bottom, to protect the ground formation . 20cm or so diameter and placed vertically , paked closely, to form the foundation. Then coarser stones, smaller plced over and compacted down . Then a surface coarse of 5cm stone, embedded into the road top. Telford recognised that drainage was key. Having a dry road means you;ll have a stable road and a strong road. If you have a wet road it will deteriorate and disintegrate very quickly. A lot of HM is dependent on keeping your roads dry. Macadam and macadamising is the main process adopted for the turnpikes, 1807 to 1870. Macadam felt there was no need for foundation stones att he base of the road, that well=sized and well-sorted stones of approx 5 to 10 cm laid together and well compacted, there was no need for the base as the loading would be evenly distributed to the grund. Macadams roads also required being dry, including drainage ditches. He introduced a camber to the road, for water to flow away . The French had a go at making wonderful roads, a man called Tragorstd. Unfortunately he failed to recognise the importance of drainage. He insisted his roads were trenched like the sunken lanes of the British countryside. This created nightmares for his lengthsmen to maintain. The stones were chipped by hand, the work parish children would have done along wiht the women. Men would have transported and l;aid the stone, spreading evenly across. Part of the Highways act allowed the surveyors , of each parish, to mine or quarry stone and gravel from local pits without hindrance. However they had to do this fairly. The later act of 1662, introduced penalties , fines on these surveyors if deriliction of duty was found, ie taking bribes or not doing a good job of it. A lot of responsibility was laid on them in htis later act. These days its easy to get grsaded stone, done by machine. A lot of thought went into the highways acts, into wheel sizes and diameters of wheels as it was found that skinny wheeled carts would dig in and rut the surface. Breaking it up a lot more quickly than a wider wheeled wagon. So a width of wheel was demanded and this was adopted throughout the UK. The Highways Act 1980, our bible, we work from stil ltoday. Supported by some other acts. THere are a few types of modern road construction. mostly a stone-base course, made of grade1 graded aggregate, 75mm in size. Then a surface course, including a binder coarse under it. The surface coarse is the road strength, takin gthe compressio nforce of passing vehicles. The typical road surface today is called ashphalt-concrete. A generic term for any bitumous make-up that has stones within it. There is an amount of sand content, an amount of stone content, and bitumin content. Bitumen content is typically no mor ethan 10%. It is designed to fill and bind the stones which may or may not be pre-coated with bitumen. The idea behind good road construction is you don't want voids. Voids create weakness, when pressure is placed upon them , the force can transfer thru these voids. Hot-rolled ashphalt is a more sand derrived AC wiht a high pecentage of sand, something like 70%, meaning its heavily compacted. When laying hot-rolled ashphalt, its laid out from the machine , then a series of coated chippings ,about 20mm are evenly dispersed , pressed and rolled into the surface. This is our preferred surface as H engineers. Its one of the most durable , strongest st and resistant surfaces we have in our arsenal. In some places it can look terrible, but is still retaing its strength because of its densly compacted nature. The fine matrix makes it very water-proof, very few void sp[aces within it. Stone mastic ashphalt is slightly different because it includes within it, fibres, very effective at finding and keeping the strain and stresses of compression throughout the matrix. It does that laterally and vertically and all directiond between. SMA hasa higher stone content and the stones are what binds together, designed to be irregularly shaped, they mesh together and create a stronger matrix because of their shape. Rigid construction , like the M27, a perfect example in its bare form . The surface is so strong, the way it transfers load is a bit different. Concrete slabs have a very high wear resistance. The surface now on the M27 is as it was when built, not been changed. The slabs are starting to reach the end of their life but its been a long and hard life. Concrete was a favoured method through the 60s, when the housing estates were developed, along with the motorways. They form the basis of a lot of the roads today, called composite roads. A work pic of mine, as usual of a pot-hole these days. A surface of AC but showing thru are telltale lines of the joints which have recently been filled. A concrete bed below. A rigid road base and flexible road course on top. A photo of Havant Rd on Hayling Island. A water leak that occured last year. Surface course with binder , added on top of the original concrete base. Originally a concrete road and then smoothed over , not a thin layer, but binder surface coarse on top. Slabs and block paviours , very popular in scenic areas, such as town centres. Also in modern residential estates, however its the bane of our lives. More traditionally cobbles, like Quay St in Lymington , I don't believe thats changes in several hundred years. So load distribution. When you have rigid pavement , the load is distributred evenly throughout the slab. Unfortunately the slab ends, at that makes a focus point. This is where sub-base is imperative, if it fails , that slab will start tilting. Typically these slabs are about 7m long x2.5m wide and I've seen them rocking. In this rocking there is stress on the reinforcement in the slab and then the concrete is likely to fail. When you see cracks forming , thats due to differential movement in the slab. This cracking can also be due to temperature changes. Flexible road is more adaptive, it allows the peak of pressure to flow through it. Pressure is greatest beneath a wheel , but with multi-wheel there will be different peaks and troughs of pressure off those wheels. Ashphalt deteriorates over time, going brittle with age, brittle when exposed to cold , or too much sunlight. More brittleness means its a lot less adaptive and a lot less able to transfer vehicle pressures , passing over. Micro-cracks start appearing and the stone content starts to be plucked out, then localised defects. This failure transfers to the binder course at the surface. Each council has different categorisations of defects and different priorities. Hampshire's are 40 to 50mm , Soton is up to 70mm so roads in Soton will get a lot worse looking before actioning. Thats all in response to their risk assessments and other safety related stuff. I just maintain them to what I'm allowed to. Another cause of plucking is wetness. If the road is under a tree, it can create a shadow where it stays damp for a longer period of time. If you drive through a wood , and the surface deteriorates its due to the road surface being wet for longer. That moisture is deteriorating the asphalt, then allowing the stones to be plucked out. Spalling is a reflection of a failure at the base of a road. The surface ashphalt is flexible , more flexible in summer , less so in winter due to the temp. But a crumbley surface shows its been overloaded because the foundation has collapsed. That may be the constuctor's fault rather thantraffic's fault, insufficient compaction , or some voids present or water ingress from a leak of a crack somewhere else or a utility company has dug a trench that has washed out the base. You'll get more spalling in older roads. In newer roads you can get more deformation as the result of something called heave. A pic of such an area of damage, still a good running surface , but the affected area is soon to break out into a pothole. The more spalling, the more water allowed in to the roadbase , followed by an exagerated deterioration which will continue until you deal with it. This will need a complete edge reconstruction or haunch repair as we call it. So requiring 40mm of the surface course removed, 60mm of binder course and then further 100mm at least of the roadbase type1 of earlier, could be as deep as 200mm to repair it properly. The reason behind that failure pictured is its seen a considerable amount of HGV traffic on only a residential road, because of a developement down the road. Al lthe lorry loads of muck , brick deliveries etc, all going over it. Developers do pay a fee for developing and some of that money goes to improving the roads, some to repairing such damage as this. A concrete slab failure , a composite road , surfaced over with AC. Spalling again, reflective of the concrete base which has failed. There is 80mm of deflection within the hollows. That is further worsened by some of the material being newer material of previous repairs, that had heaved up creating 120mm of height change. This is due to buses, purely due to them stopping at that point, a bus stop. As they arrive , they break , just normal gentle sedate breaking for you on the bus. But under the bus in the road , large localised repeated pressure , causing this localised failure. Also due to the deteriorated nature of the concrete slab beneath it. You can see the location of the joints in the underlying concrete road , the slab has completely failed. Another bus-stop slab failure, a freshly resurfaced road 2 years prior to this photo, deep intencse black layer with a puddle within it. The pooling water has liquified the base under the slab , every time a bus goes over it a little mud volcano erupts as the road base gets forced out thru the cracks. Reflective cracking - a composite road on which you can see the main slabs but broken out into sub-slabs, observed as reflective cracking. So someone resurfaced the road, keeping the concrete base, it didn't need any work. But it did need work, it looks ok for 10 years and then eventually, through changes in the weight distributin in the slabs and temp. Concrete under the tarmac , cracks at a different rate, causing these fractures. You can see where the slabs are broken and need repairing, but it really needs a new concrete slab beneath it. Concrete slabs are onerous to repair, because of the time required to cure. Once the public have a road they like to keep using it. So we remove the slab and replace it with a flexible construction, which inevitably leads to cracking around its edge , because of the discontinuity of road type. But we can't allow concrete to cure for a month. The only use for concrete these days ,generally, is for cattle grids of the New Forest, where we have no other option than to set in concrete foundation. Vegetation can also be our enemy. Not just tree roots but simple weeds as well. A weed grown thru 100mm of ashphalt, all without sunlight. So its imperative when screening our aggregates , it is completely free of weeds. Some introduced plants such as Japanese knotweed can break up ashphalt and also concrete. We have a log on our GIS system of every piece of knotweed within or adjascent to the highways of Hants. Bamboo is another one. If omeone has bamboo in their garden and they allow it to grow to such an extent it interferes with the integrity of the highway, they are then liable for that damage, and we can recharge them. Trees are slightly different as we like to keep our trees. However sometimes we have to rid them as matter of public safety. Asphalt can deform, a patch about 6 or 7 years old, 14mm stone matrix AC. In some places its started cracking at the edges of the hollow. The centre is depressed 150mm . On investigation we found a large hole under it, of depth 4.5 feet. The public sewer beneath that had broken , the pipe collapsed and the watrer was washing away the road base, 2.5m down. Over time the road lost its foundation , washed down the public sewer and the void opened up. We quickly got Southern Water out to fix the problem. Temporary reinstatement . Often with utility works you haven't got the materials you need to create a good repair. Utility cos have the right to put their equipment in the highway. We don't stop them, we co-ordinate them , having the public interest at heart, limiting the amout of disruption. S oSouthern Electric have made a new connection to a new-build house . They did not have access to the tarmac plant at the time so laid in some cold lay tarmac. Their allowed 6 months before upgrading to permanent reinstatement. This failed i n3 weeks , on Boxing Day and the hole is .2m deep and 1.5m long in a main A-road. We got them to fix it quickly. The original failure was due to the cold and the amount of water , water got into the edge seams , where they cut out and then it froze. Freeze-thaw is an additional method of failure with regards to potholes. Another Xmas callout the A272 in Cheriton , a very large tree came down. We have to keep an eye on trees generally , not just on the highway but trees adjascent too. We have a duty of care, if we notice they are dangerous , we inform the landowner and get them to remediate. If they don't , we can step in using the powers of the Highway Act , to make safe in the public interest, we tehn like to get our money back. Flooding is quite common. It can be as simply due to a can or a bottle in a pipe, obstructing the flow. It can be capacity, too much water in the system. Or simply blocked by leaves. We often find issues with tree roots. We can usually deal with these problems, using a jetter , high pressure and suction water tanker. I think it can use 1500psi pressure hoses, to blast through the pipes and use suction to clear it all out. Roots totally filling the pipes , then you need special tools, root cutters. A different type of jetter that can cut thru roots using a sort of flail , driven by the water pressure. With such a blocked drain, it prevents the system from working and you often see , the surcharging of water thru gullies in hte road, skip a section of blocked pipe and then go down the next set of drains. It is often at someone's property where it gets to the lowest point or pool at the side of the road, in a place where it used to drain, but is full. Road Traffic Collisions. This one, a drunk driver, in Waterlooville took out 2 sets of traffic lights and 2 sections of pedestrian barrier. We have the power to recharge the responsible parties, typically covered by the insurance, failing that the person is liable. A hit and run incident, unrechargable , someone nearly drove themselves off a bridge. Fly-tipping. In this case a pile of fresh horse manure dumped in th e road , near Bursledon. We have the responisibility to keep the roads clear , but in instances of flytipping occur it is the district or borough's responsibility to clean the roads. Often they cannot work on open main roads as its deemed too dangerous. In those cases we work with them by closing the road, allowing them to clear it. In this case myself and 2 contractors spent 45 minuutes shovelling. Planned and routine maintainence. Planned is when we do resurfacing works, surface dressing works, rejuventaion works , also fixing drainage problems. A prime example is Hambledon recently. Serious groundwater flooding a couple of years back, we designed a large-scale scheme , dug up the whole road length , implemented a large drainage scheme . The "loose chippings" signs of surface dressing , a method of waterproofing roads that are nearing the end of their life, but gives them another 5 to 10 years , depending on the traffic levels. You lay out a bitumous emuulsion , you pass over with a chipper, like in hot-rolled ashphalt , distribures evenly a layer of stone chip[pings, across the freshly laid surface. That bitumous emulsion acts as an adhesive and when coupled with a roller. The public usage also presses the chips into the emulsion, as it takes a while to set, hours to days. Sometimes to reduce the amount of loose chippings , a second coat of emulsion is run over those chippings , to adhere better. It is more expensive but it too adds longevity. Micro-ashphalt dressing - a bitumous slurry which contains a lot oof fine stone chippings. Its laid a lot thicker , about 40mm as opposed to a single layer of 4mm stone. Its heavily used in residential areas and is a durable finish. It almost looks like new road. It is difficult engineering for all these surface dressing processes as it requires us to calculate the existing road heights , and new road hweights. Whether the existing drainage systems, kerb-lines etc are suitable for footway levels, are suitable for the new road surface height. When #new roads are constrructed , they are given an amount of adjustment room to allow for future resurfacings. So we don't have to rebuild the network when we go for these types of maintainence. Jet-patching - similar slurry as used in micro-ashphalt can be deployed from a nozzle. It can be manually controlled or on a boom arm , its very quick, trafficable within 5 minutes of being laid. It needs minimal comp[action and is perfect for quick-fixes. Often a jet patching crew will go along a road before a surface dressing contractor comes along. To fill in the defects that would express themselves thru the surface otherwise. Otherwise we have to cut out and patch using the traditional method. Jet patching has been only used for the last 5 years and has become very popular because its very cost effective. As a county we only pay for the volume of stone we use, its very convenient to send a jet-patcher down a road . such pot-hole filling does not mean the road is off our radar , because we know its starting to fail, but at least we knpw the public is safe after the jet-patcher has gone down there. The machinery for road-surface resurfacing. A planer , passing round one of its tungsten teeth. They're mopunted on a drum at all sorts of angles. They break up the road surface, feen onto a conveyor belt , disposed of by the leading lorries. The planer drum is fixed i n position, unadjustable . The tracks move , in height terms , to get fine adjustment , an accuracy of 5mm of planed off height. This is imperative, because of the margins we are allowed in resurfacing levels. The thinest layer we would resurface on a carriageway is 40mm typically. After the planer, its swept. Road sweeper vehicles have very stong suction, they can lift whole manhole covers, out of the road, so they have to switch off , going over them. A paver, this one abroad does 7.5m spread . Typically in the UK we like to lay no more than 3.5m at a time. We have issues regarding the temp of the bitumen and AC we're laying at the extremeties of the paver. The hot ashphalt is tipped into the front hopper, then a series of augers that distribute it thru the machine , onto the back where its levelled off and smooth tamped with a boom. Keeping the width down to 3.5m increases the life of the surface. A thermal image of a recently laid road surface, the highest temp is 150 deg. We struggle with temp as the trucks we use aren't insulated. The material we receive starts at 150 deg, by the time we receive it , just covered by tarpaulin, its down to about 120 deg. By about noon it dropped to about 90 deg and by that point, if still doing repairs i nthe afternoon, you're doomed ot a failed repair. In that situation the material cannot be compacted enough. Thats why you see road crews resurface working early morning and little action in the afternoons. There are hot-boxes that are gas burners on lorries, keep that material hot throughout the day, however ashphalt doe sdeteriorate thru time, it cant be kept hot forever. So we still suffer from material degradation by the end of a day. Recently we've engineered ashphalt with admixtures, clever people at Tarmac etc ,have managed to get the point of laying , to be cooler , nearer 90 deg. Its more expensive because of the additional chemicals , but its more cost-effective because we can keep it warmer, as not loosing its heat so quickly as readily as the higher temp material. It now coming into favour. For large scale paving, the lorries used are insulated. The 20 ton tipper trucks are insulated, they can sit for hours and no problem , usually. This is all a challenge for small crews and small jobs. After laying , its vibro-rolled, after tamped and levelling by the paver. The drums of the road roller have a vibrating mechanism inside , to further compact. For hot AC, it gets the chipping sinto the surface. The drums are constantly wetted to prevent from sticking and sinking in. It also cools the ashphalt a bit, not enough tso affecting the final surface , but enough to prevent them getting stuck. Hedge cutting is often done by the local farmer, having grown the hedge and having the rights to the hedge. Grass cutting is often done be a contractor for the county or district , by agreement. Flail mower is used for both hedges and verges, a drum with chains , several thousand RPM , breaking all in its way. Generally now , just one cut a year in hte countryside . In urban areas its more frequent. Hedge cutting is only done outside bird nesting season , which I think is oct to march. It can be done in htat season if it can be proven there are no birds nesting in the hedge. Gritters. Soton do dry gritting , distributing rock salt on to the highway. Hants is a bit more advanced , we distribute a wet mix of rocksalt and brine. The brine is stored in side tanks of the vehicle and salt in a hopper. If it snows, the ploughs go out. We also have local farmers, on contract, to do snow ploughing, when on the ground, if they are awake and would like to be paid. We licence the use of skips, scaffolding , flowers, banners and structures on the highway. Such as building-site hoardings to a gazebo for a charity function. Streetworks coordination - trying to keep the network flowing, given the demand of all the statutory undertakers have on the network, repairing, installing, maintaining and improving utility networks. We are also bound ot do safety inspections. Inspection of the condition and safety of the highway. Typically a country lane will have a yearly inspection , a residential road in a housing estate also yearly. All counties now are encouraged, by national government and a change in the funding process, to adapt their inspection and asset maintainence and knowledge t be more adaptive. If an area is deemed to be getting more footfall , it should also receive more safety inspection. eg an A road will be inspected 12 times a year at least, but does it need more. Adaptive can mean by the management of the data they hold on the network and the way the network is used. Q&A How large is the organisation of Hampshire Highways? Hundreds of people, in all areas. The customer services side based in Winchester, reactive and routine maintainance tyhat I'm part of , in 4 main depots , Totto, Hook, Bishop's Waltham and Petersfield. There are smaler depots at Andover and Havant. THere are also sme drop-in centres , for all staff, dotted around the country, dependent on their needs. The planned maintainance team also in Winchester. Theree is a legal team devoted to highways law and claims issues. So at least 250 people. Planned maintainence is structured like building projects? Hampshire Highways is a joint venture of the council in partnership with Skanska? , recently won the contract. It was up for renewal in August , other potentials were Balfour Beatty, Amey the previous incumbent holder, and up to 12 year contract, 7 years with 5 year possible extension. The Highways Dept has to loose 19 million out of its budget for the next 2 years. 19 is a considerable proportion , the amount of savings per dept throughout the county are uniform , the same percentage funding cut per dept. I think its about 15% of our bufget. Part of the contract is about innovation and with this modern concept of adaptive asset management, that is required to get the funding from government, better funding if better managed highways, so that is the focus on. More adaptive, more proactive and more preventative to our maintainence. Like using the jet-packers to make the roads safer , and by this patching prevent the deterioration and worsening. Depending on the type of failure, you might be able to surface dress the road, to give even longer life. We're still exploring ways such as this. Do materials, like planings, get re-used? Hants is being innovative, we have a tarmac plant, not quite operational . Its not a proper tarmac plant, its a recycling plant, it takes the road planings and creates whats called a hydraulically bound material out of them. A bit different to the bitumous binders I showed earlier. They have been tested and tried and is about to strart rolling out across the UK in more numbers. An issue is , Hants council has to give ourselves a waste-handling licence to transport the planings , recyle at our new plant , then sell them to other counties for a revenue stream or recycle withion our own schemes. It cant be used in some places, like the surface course of roads is not appropriate, so footways and less trafficked areas. The quality is not as good as a fresh material. S oa matter of using the right thing in the right p[lace. The binder coarse can be made of it, and we will be regularly using it there. The binder course is typically 1/3 the size of the surface course, 60mm binder and 40mm surface coarse. I've seen out on the roads , vehicles with big signs on them saying road surveying. I've not managed to determine whether they are sniffing for gas leaks or penetrating radar for voids detection under the roads? Its neithe rof those , its surface scanning , measuring the deterioration of the surface, not for voids. That then feeds into the asset management software and becomes a check for or against resurfacing . THe only time I've seen a road crew doing a pothole filling job, rake away the loose bits. But when traffic creates a pothole the sides are either vertical or chamfered outwards. But I rxpected them to chisel , to make an undercut around the periphery of the hole , to give some key , or it would just lift straight out. But they didn't and I get the impression they don't do that anywhere? Typically a patch is cut. In America they don't cut, they believe the rough edges give a better adhesion. Everything is coated with a tack coat , a bond coat around the edge , creates a waterproof seal and allows the 2 parts to stick together. Its a lot easier to create a waterproof seal on a fresh cut edge than a rough one. The cut could be canted over, rather than vertical? But then you cant get the compaction . The vertical edges are what keeps the compaction into the patch. Loose that and the edges of the patch will fail. If you've seen anyone just putting stuff into a hole, thats just a temporary repair, not classed as a permanent fix. Sometimes such a repair will last only a couple of weeks? That can depend on how wet the foundation isvor how hot or cold the tarmac is at laying. The railway track out there has notorious problems because of underground streams , running off Portswood high ground and in railway engineering terms they call that a wet-bed, and it all disturbs the ballast with the bouncing of the trains at high speed, is that the same term in your area of operation? Its much the same for us. There is a notorious bit of road at the bottom of Bevois Hill , whee there is a major underground stream and all the ground there is sand. It simply washes out the sand and every now and then there is a huge cavern, sort of half the size of this room emerges, perhaps every 10 years? We have isues on Hayling Island with running sand, similar problems. Same problem with the railtrack at Swaythling, having to put in stones for drainage purposes? What considerations do you have to make with different underlying soils like clay ground ? That is down to the designers behind planned maintainence. In my work i put back what is there, I'm not allowed to improve much at all. If you do see an increase of the pliability of the soil , if clay it would have a certsin California Bearing Ratio or a Hang-Sheer Bear ? ratio where it would be calculated how much strenght the material has . Often,if not strong enough , it will be removed. For instance the new Bordon-Whitehill relief road , a lot was sand which was removed and then built up with suitable stone, to make the sub-base, before laying the road-base. In the old days t get macadamised roads over moorland, they built rafts of wood or heather , float them , and then build the road on top. That is still done to some extent today still. Drive over moorland roads and you find they have an undulating nature, due to the failure of such artificial formations below. So, for a nice smooth road, they put stone in the dips , and raise back to an even surface, just makes the problem worse. You really need to stop and then start again. If 40 ton HGVs were going down Roman roads , how would they have fared compared to modern roads? They'd have disintegrated straight away. The image of Havant town centre, where the weekly market is held. No more than 7.5 ton vehicles coming in , slow speed, once a week. Every month we inspect , and usually 30 or 40 loose paviours every time. Its just not suitable. You often have your modern housing estate , with small raised tsables to slow down traffic , out of concrete blocks or granite sets or cobbles and they will disintegrate unde rthe bin lorry or delivery lorries. A maintainence nightmare, a brilliant idea, fulfills the planning criteria , adding traffic calming , but it just adds ongoing costs ot maintainence. Pired-up double wheels on axles distributes the load, and your slow speed market delivery situation there is no bouncing, compared to women in Stilletto heels and intense local pressure, whats going on there ? The issue is you approach a slab , its fine when your on the middle of the slab as you are spreading across the whole slab. Hit the edge, you focu a tthe edge , the rocking starts . Slabs and blocks are only bedded onto compacted sand, not waterproof either. The continentals seem to be able to do block paviouring a lot better than over here, taking slow heavy traffic ? They probably have thicker blocks. If you have blocks say 150mm depth , they'll bind together a lot better because they won't be able to tilt and rock. 70mm slab or depth of block doesn't have that going for it. The other golden rule, seems to be, don't disturb the subbase unloess you really have to. Long term compaction is far better than short term vibro-rollers and flapper plates? Yes, and utility companies are constantly difgging up / disturbing and that contributes to wear and tear of compaction over time. We will always have maintainence because you can never perfectly put back what you took out. Down the road here in Kent Rd, I don't know what the recurring sewer problem is 5m deep , having to excavate down with shoring and long reach Hi-Macks, do what they have to do, fill in with compaction as much as they can , but 6 months later a great dip in the road? I remember the M27 being built and there was horrendous amounts of water over the clay, so roadlaying in what was basically lakes on clay. How has that transpired in maintainence terms over the years? I'd expected disintegration ? Slabs are stable ecause of their size and distributing their weight over the sub-formation. Everything below the slabs would have bee compacted down beforehand. Its all about compaction f the base, otherwise you #end up wiht rocking slabs. There is an amount of movement within each slab and also an amount of movement from expansion and contraction from heat. Hence the putty between slabs. Different rates of movement and they will show up this differential movement in eventual cracking. There is an innovative surfacing that is quieter . A familiar bit of road I regularly go down , for the same traffic , the road environment is quieter, 100 yards away , than what it was before? It loks ordinary ashphalt to me? Noise from road surface is a combination of the tyres your driving on and how the air excapes . The noise is created by trapped air escaping from under the tyre, as it gets compressed. S o an off-road tyre on a 4x4 is a lot noisier , as more air is trapped and released. If you increase the texture of the road surface, you allow more air to pass out on passage of the tyres. And also a surface-water effect with that? Yes, its hard to balance. So its a sort of microstructure variation , that is making the surgface quieter? Does that wear off with traffick usage ,and disappears over time? Eventually yes, then as the stones get plucked out as the ashfelt gets tired, it gets noisier again. For the new patching materials and water ???, On my pushbike and when its really icey when it becomes icier is it more of a problem , more slippery cycling or driving over? It could be, it depends on the depth of water on the surface. You will find that new ashphalt is more impervious to water than older with its microcracks. So a newly surfaced road will be slippier when wet , due to this imperiousity. Yes be more careful. Some roads are less grippy when re- surfaced than after they've worn in. Hence slippery road signs around , after especially SMA . I call them squidges, conflation of squirm and ridge, but if you have a bus lane , I assumed it was due to summertime softening of the tarmac but it humps up into ridges. A lorry driver once told me that its due to leaks of diesel fuel softens the ashphalt, not just a summer issue.? Called heave. Diesel does deteriorate ashphslt, but those ridges aren't caused by diesel leaks . Its because they are running in the same track , an overloading of the surface, which is not strong enough for the required use. Also the foundation could well be failing and the bitumen is adapting to that. It deforms more in summer and will crack more when its more brittle in winter. One of your biggest enemies is frost, is the worst form the amount of freezing and melting cycles over a few days, the depth of the frost or the duration of the frost? Its all bad. We put salt on the roads, thats bad for ashphalt in the long term. How often do you manage to get money back off those that have casued damage. ? Our previous contracter was supposed to , but didn't and our new contractor has not started yet, but they will. We take a police reference number and the recharge team gets engaged on blame,fault and billing. Billing for our time, assesments and repairs. Street lamp damage is separate, processed by the street lighting team. What about not necessarily criminal behavious but vehicles goiung where they shouldn't and causing damage? Leigh Park housing estate, Havant, designed without private cars in mind, just public transport catered for. We can't go after everyone who parks their car on the grass. Its cheaper for us to repair the damaged grass verge with some stone to harden it. Discourage it ,yes, by strategic siting of posts. In previous times there was money to increase parking in Leigh Park, but no money now, there are plans for mor ebut no money for them. We've seen much increased applicatins for parking spaces in increasingly more inopportune positions. Its costing the home-owners thousands to do so, but it does allow them to park up. However its a source of many neighbour disputes, because one person at the farthest point will pay for it all , the next door one can then get in cheaper and the original applicant gets miffed. It causes a lot of issues, trust me. Why are the roads in London much smoother than the ones in Soton? Hampshire's criteria for a defect starts at 40mm , we will act on at that point. Soton's criteria for a defect in the road is 70mm and not bothered about repairing anything less. Generally it depends on the local authority as to their road maintainence standards. Involving risk-assessing, and proving, there is no definition of a pothole in terms of size. The roads in London have more money spent on them than county roads. Smaller network, more concentrated , has more traffic but also more money spent on it per road km or square km than ever the roads around here. Is there diferent standards for the road near junctions? No. A crossing point can be upheld to the standards of a footway potentially. A footway defect starts at about 25mm . The get-out clause is theyy are all visually assessed, no tape measure involved. Its what I think by looking at it. By footway do you mean pavement? A pavement is an entire metalled surface , a footway is where you walk up to the curb or a small verge separating . Carriageway is where the vehicles drive and a footpath is remote from a carriageway. I think Soton has 40mm for footway and 70mm for carriageway defect point. Are areas of high-rateable value houses have better quality road surfaces and maintainence , than low-ratebale value areas? There might be some truth, when we start getting political. Who shouts the most at their councillor , thats where some of this maintainence malarky breaks down as some people kick u pa lot of stink about nothing which you then have to spend money on and then you get something a lot worse that no one cares about and no money to spend on it by then anyway. There is a political aspect to some of this and I have to kick myself when money is spent on stuff that is irrelevant, just because someone high-up says so and I cant say no. Each area or district or burrough has its own pot and that is split between the 4 depots of Hants council. Some of them spend all the budget, some don't, some share it some won't share. New forest road construction is inherently poor as so many of them are just laid over gravel and nothing can be done about that because of National Park status , which means maintainance has to be as-is and no improvements allowed. In WW2 connecting the airfields , concrete roads were built around Beulieu and hte roads to Fawley Refinery but not otherwise. I've never seen a dilapidated cattle grid, they must need some work keeping good? I think there is 160 in the New Forest. THey've been recently re-designed to be completely modular. One of our engineers designed them from scratch , complete with hedgehog ramps. So pre-fabricated sections and just bolt together. Previously they wrre bespoke or welded , using girders and all sorts. Now they're galvanised to last a lot longer and replaceable in sections. I've never seen any bent "scaffold tube" , they don't seem to be thicker gauge than scaffolding over quite an unsupported span, with no knowledge of what weights will be going over them? 10 foot span and loaded HGVs are fine, for the modern grids anyway. ??? siding out? Its not carried out regularly so when we get to it , it requires further maintainence . In my area its mainly verges going over fotways. The footways will have concrete edgings , that gets overrun be the grass verge, driven over a few times and the ashphalt abutting the concrete wil lhave deteriorated by being kept wet under the spread verge. We maintain our footways at a minimum of 1.2m , typically they'rw built at 1.7m in width and the absolute minimum is 1m . However in historic areas , where trees grow and grow , in some places i have footway that is only 0.7m, which is difficult for wheelchair passage. In such situations you have to assess whether the tree is suitable to be there any more. A recent case a tree was blocking a footpath but the public can get off the footway , due to an old vehicle access, not putting themselves at risk, so the tree stayed. Siding-out? Pushing the verge back , or in country lanes it can be growth over the carriageway over the ground or residential area footways. Where verges or hedges can spread out. Why cut the grass? Visibility quite ofetn. We cut the grass back 1m from the road edge, to prevent it growing over the edge of the road, eventually leading to an obstruction. At junctions we cut back further and mor eoften , to maintain the visibility. Cutting the grass less often would eventually make our jibs harder, verges will become more vegative with brambles etc. Road sweeping is down to the districts and butrroughs, differnet in unitary authoriies like Soton, where they are responsible for everything. They have a road cleaning schedule. There are times when we have to clean the roads specially for safe passage. Recently in Stubbington we had a fodder beat harvest , harvested then carried by tractor and trailer to a depot and during all that, a considerable amount of clay on the road, the road lost its texture depth , so almost like driving on ice. It was dry and cold , but not iced , although acted like ice. We had to close that road as it was so unsafe with the compaction of the soil into the road surface. Cutting back vegetaion for visibility purposes but sometinmes coming up to roundabouts , there ar eobvious visibility intrusions to stop the visibility? To slow people down. You have to slow down to see, to stop people tearing onto the roundabout . One roundabout will have vegetaion cut back and then the next roundabout will have ant-visibility barriers in place? Visibility to a sufficent minimum which those baffles do. There are planning criteria for them . Surface dressing where they put emulsion down and then stones , then we have to drive it in, then all the stones scratch the cars and spread everywhere, then they sweep them up and the reason for that pallaver is its cheap and gives a rugged 5 to 10 years more? Soemetimes 15 years, then do the same thing again. thats how long the surface will last. The surface under isn't being run on , so is protected by the newly placed surface. So we're maintaining what is already there , in its state then, into the near future. There can be problems with that. For instance when it was particularly hot in the New Forest, they surface dressed the A337 to Lymington and it just melted. The bitumen emulsion flowed down the road, a river of tar. Disastrous and they had to do the whole thing again, and claims for tar damage to the cars. Incidently tar not used these days as its carcinogenous. Did steam-rollers come in before tarmac or after? The roller has always been around, its just the amount of compaction that could be generated has increased. Originally it was horse drawn rollers . If you wanted a drive done to your property , for a car , what surface would you recommend? and what underneath? You have to ignore all I've said before, because planning states you must have a porous surface. They do do porous ashphalt , but because it is porous it is self-defeating, bacauase water is bad for the foundations. Its not so bad for the useage in that situation, but get removal men turn up and too much. Porous block paving is probably the safes tbet. You use a specific kind of sand between the blocks, no cement, there. If you have clay below then it will all wash away. There are suitable products ut there. Gravel and plastic tiles that are porous , above clay is one such. But the clay would still bleed through a bit. Porous requirement is to prevent surface run-off and flash flooding. So a linear drain at the end of the drive, it never fgoes anywhere , but it should. Because you are supposed to deal with the water that lands on your property, within your property. Often you pay for that in your water bill. Your rainwater gutters flow either a soak away typically 3m from your house . Incidently need to be dug up every 25 years and be re-stoned, disposing of the previous. Or go into surface water sewer , not into the highway drainage. As we should not have to deal with "your" water, unless its naturally flowing off a hill , say a farmer's field that is above you. With your mangled-up verges in Eastleigh , there is that thickish black plastic mesh reinforcement mat you just lay over the grass , and it grows thru. You don't use anything like that to reinforce. ? The only time we use that sort of material is where there is a vehicle access or a footway near a tree, so not allowed to do any digging near by. Its not the sort of thing we can maintain in a highway sense, as not to any specification . The grass simply grows thru , so environmentally it looks good and does the job? Yes W approx 70

12 February 2018, the intended speaker did not turn up as in hospital with a life changing condition. From the audience we had 3 volunteers with a 20 minute talk each. Roger Anderson, speaker Roger Boskovirtch was a priest in the 18C . There was the Copernicus revolution , then Galileo, then they had problems with theh inquisition, because the church did not agree with what he was saying about the Earth going around the sun. Along with that there was a problem with atomic theory. Atomic theory was seen as being aetheist. Then Newton took up the ideas in England, where there was a bit more freedom, regarding physics, also the Royal Society, for which the king had given them pardon, to talk about things that were otherwise heresy. The catholic church had to reconsider its position on the new physics. The leading light in the catholic church was Fr Boskovitch and he managed to get the ban on Copernicus teaching overturned sufficiently to also teach Newtonian physics in catholic countries. Part of that was the idea of atoms. Newton had his gravity theory and insight into light but he did not have a complete theory of atomic physics. This omission was filled by Fr B. He wrote a book on it in 1758 callled the Theory of Natural Phylosophy and was the basis for modern atomic physics. You look at the others working on atomic physics, Rutherford, Niels Bohr, Heisenberg and others, they had a starting point of B's theory. Even the Manhattan project, the theory they were coming from was Bs theory, developing it on further. Einstein came along and from his influence, after WW2 , B's theory was not taught. To make room for Quantum Theory and Relativity Theory , to physics students, they cut out teacing about B and any physics from the 18C. Bohr and his contempories knew of B , but since WW2 he was totally cut out from teaching. Then you look at people who were working on Unified Field Theory, B was there before. How the particles interact with the fields in B theory, that was also removed from teaching syllabuses. Bs theory of UFT is now consigned to historical studies of physics. Q: What was in B's theory? Particles . Atoms concept go back to the ancient Greeks, with Democrus? and Epicurus et al. Then the Christian movement happened, and up to the middle ages, that concept was considered heresy. It came to the fore again with Copernicus and the catholic church had to reconsider its position on atoms. How did Dalton get involved with this? Dalton was working from Bs theory. B had the theory of particles and Dalton was talking about a chemical element, the atom of a chemical element. For say silver you could cut it down to just the atom, cut the atom further then things like the nucleus and electrons emerge. So well beyond the early Greek theory, that it was something simply uncuttable. Dalton's atom was a chemical atom and was cuttable. So sub-atomic particles. Dalton believed atoms were fixed? Daltons atoms were not the ultimate atoms, you could cut them down further. Later with Richard Feynman he was dealing with things called quarks, he treatred quarks as the smallest particle. He referred back to Bs theory in how to handle that. Another person knowledgable of B was John Wheeler, setting up his school for relativity after WW2, part of his teaching was from B theory. When he was trying to get a UFT, he called it Quantum GeoMetroDynamics. But that had its roots back in the 18C. Einstein looking at UFT failed to unite quantum mechanics and general relativity. The 18C UFT was worked on later, there were mistakes though. In Bs early days was he a physicist who went over to religion not letting the church hierarchy know of his physics background ? They were'nt called scientists back then , chemistry or alchemy was the major science, then phsics was just a bit of chemistry. He wasa natural philosopher in there terms. The priesthood he was with was called theSociety of jesus, the jesuits. They swore allegance to the pope, and that gave them exemption to things that were considered heresy. So a ban on Galileo's book , but that really only applied to the general populace. There were special people who were allowed to look into , to reconsider it. And B was the main man for doing that. Even today there is a well respected astronomical observatory attached to the Vatican? , so that has carried on thru the centuries? There is a link between B and astronomy. I go a lot to Serbia , they know about B. So a conspiracy to supress B? How do you define conspiracy. If you look at say the Manhattan Project. General Groves was in charge of it and part of the structure there was to delete things from physics which were considered to come under national security. Was that a conspiracy, i'd posit. You're saying that anyone like Dalton couldn't mention B by name? He does mention B in his writings. You go back to the early 20C , the scientists then knew of B. So Mendelev of his series, did not mention B? He was Russian, the main man in Russia of that time was Lamskovus? he was working from B theory. Dalton based his work on the way he observed chemicals combined together, in fixed proportions. Did he get that idea from B? The theory of particles goes back to B and 1758. Why did B have a theory of particles? He had to reconsider it , because of the Copernican revolution, the Greek ideas had to be reconsidered. He had to come up with a theory that the catholic church would be happy with, Fr B did this. It allowed Newtonian physics to be taught in catholic countries. In England, what we know as Newtonian physics is from Newton, but go to catholic countries , at that time, they knew it as B theory. Did B work this out for himself or was he translating Newton? He was looking at Newton's work and extending it further. Newton had objects attracted by gravity , such as the Earth and moon, but no talk of repulsive forces, only attractive force. For a more complete theory you have to consider repulsion as well. Did B talk about fields? He called them spheres of influence. You had an object and around it was a sphere of influence, that would influence that object. When Faraday worked on this , he called it fields. For people working on UFT, they had David Bohem with an idea of pilot waves, that they worked on. Bohem run into a problem as part of MacCarthy witch-hunts , he was accused of being a communist , so that side-lined him. UFT was to combine gravity and electromagnetism? That was the intention. The forces were acting as per B was saying. An attractive force and a repulsive forvce and it has to obey curves. So not like action at a distance like gravity? One way of thinking of action at a distance is as fields, the gravitational field. Gravitational Field , considered by Einstrein as space-time curvature, where space is given the attributes of a field. Einstein's work on UFT went back to the 18C. David Bohem had a student called Avije? who does conferences on this subject. I'm trying to get people , when they write any physics theory , in this area , to consider the work of B. THere are people like Prof Rowlands of Liverpool who I believe has written a book on it, connecting in to hs own writings. A chemist Prof Munroe in the states is incorporating it into his theories as well. Roger Anderson had translated the works of B, into a book, that he passed around the audience. Ron Melville :Positive Money i started asking the question 3 years ago - where does money come from? People say it comes from the bank or the post office. When you go to get your mortgage , you go to a mortgage company, usully related to ta bank. They say you have enough collateral, we'll give you a mortgage. They go to a computer, type in the number and suddenly that money has been created that did not exist before. It seems a remarkable fact but basically they just print money. Economista say we can't simply create money or we'll create inflation . But we've ended up with bamnks that create money when we take out a mortgage. So what happens if all the mortgages are paid off, well ther'd be no money. You start to realise that money is based on debt, apart from the coins in your pocket. It is estimated that the hard currency in circulation is about 3%, 97% is numbers in a bank. THe problem with debt-based money is that it attracts interest. If you have to feed the interest system , you are tsaking money out of the system all the time. The system becomes leaky and apart from the balance of payments problem , another way to have money leaking out of an economy, you have a leaky system. What happens to the interest is a an interesting question and I'm sure most of it doesn't get circulated back into the economy. The only way to compensate for that is to create more debt, to keep the system stable. A lot of politicians don't understand this , they think austerity is the answer, taking money out of the system has the opposite effect. So we have a system we have to keep feeding by creating debt, to compensate for the interest and the money coming out of the system. So politicians say we must have growth to compensate. We live on a finite planet, we can't continue to have growth. There is a quote that only a lunatic and an economist would say that we mus thave growth. A bunch of other people going around saying this system cannot work, it will end in collapse. They said, we are doing this the wrong way round. Instead of basing money on a minus sign , lets create money on the plus side, so we call it positive money. There is a +money group in Soton and across the UK. They say , if governments can create money by pinching it , which then does not attract interest, you can strart taking control of the economy. Not having to money in the form of interest out of the system you can start towads a more sustainable society. Some go further saying go for sustainability , not continual growth. We all fear the end result of the conventional structure is collapse and global warmoing. So +m people say we should start creating money , by printing it through an autonomous organistaion that controls the money supply , they print it to be various things in society. When it comes back thru taxation, you just delete it and it no longer exists. That is the basic principle of +m, a sustainable rather than continual growth society. This way we hope you can have a better future. When I hear governments saying debt is getting too big. The last govt manages to double govt debt to virtually 2 trillion . I don't mind if it collapses because we can go to the alternative of a +m system. But the EU agreed that we should go to more debt. For more info on this , put into Google, where does all the money come from AND you-tube an icon comes up with 2 dollars on it , a 40 minute video, it tells you much more about how this system works. I've had to watch it 3 times to get the most salient features. Q: So debt no longer exists? It all depends on how the money is created. Q: So , I can't afford to buy a hous e. You can go to a bank , if they have money already, you can then borrow it. We're not really chnging the banking system that much. They're losing the abiity to print money. Instead of banks printing money , a central organisation does it. Q: Wasn't that what the original building societies were. People put money into them as savers. Yes but its changed over the last 20 years or so. It was actually Gordon Brown who changed it. The Fractional? Reserve System was changed . Q: Could you explain how Quantitive Easing comes into this because the govt produced loads of money to offset the financial crisis in 2008. I know a little about this. When the govt wanted to borrow money it issued a bond that people buy. With QE they just bought the bonds back. They made offers to people to buy back bonds. Where did the govt get the money from, they printed it. The person who invented QE was someone at Soton Uni, apparently. I understand that the original concept of QE was you shouldn't give it to the banks , you should give it to people , to pay off their mortgages . Far more sensible, that way. The first people to try it, were the Japanese, and they switched the system to pay yhe banks, for buying the bonds back. Q: So where has the money gone? I wish I knew . It was said at one time that China had so mush foreign capital th=at they could buy yhr entire real estate in the USA, whether true today , I don't know. Q: Do you know anything about the Islamic banking system, where they don't charge interest. ? They don't believe in usury , bu tthe details i don't know. The have a structure where there is a payment upfront, which is an equivalent to interest as a get-around. So effectively much the same. There is an organistaion called Positive Money, do you know who they are and who funds it. Its out there on www. There was a chap v=called Ben Dyson , an economist , one of the promoters of this. Q: I think they have a point. It is plain simply wt=rong that banks just create money via computers. Then speculators gamble it away, and then financial cre=ises. If I did that, I could become a loan-shark and become a billionaire in minutes. So who is this organisation and why are they promoting it, including their funding, thats what interests me. Who funds it, I don;'t know. the reason behind it , is towards a sustainable society. In my opinion the result of continual growth is global warming and who does that benefit. Q: I assume you're not an advocate of bit coins. I don't know enough about that topic . How is the money based, is the interesting question . Not money at all . Even wider , what is money anyway. Q: The one advantage that crypto-currencies have , over regular currency is coded into the design, there can only be a certain number of them. At the moment banks print money whenever they feel like it, but with something like bitcoin , its fixed. Its value depends on people follwing some rules. Also all transactions are recorded and available . I don't think we'll ever get a sustainable society on the present course, and thats the key to it. So many politicians out there just don't understand this. Q: Third wold countries that want to industrialise and want similar lifestyles as us, cars and excessive energy use. This is the model we've shown them , what do you think the consequences will be. It started going wrong with the FRB system. THat basically says, if you have 100 GBP, you can lend 1000. Q: Before that , there was printing money without anything much behind it. Any correction was via devaluation. In my 60 years government s have been printing money without gold or something behind it. They promised to pay the bearer on demand, but they could easily devalue whatever they had to pay. As my dad said, buy a house and counter inflation. Q: Can you see avarice disappear with +m.? You have to understand the hierarchy of need for this. Basically the human being wants to survive. He needs food , shelter and 5 other parameters, that Mazilo? said. Once those parametrs are acquired you can then head towards self-actualisation - the state of being where you are emotionally stable, you have no anger, no depression, or anxiety etc. Jung called this individualation. Create the demand and people who've had rotten lives , are compelled to compensate for things that have gone wrong in your life. You're dealing with insecure human beings, who feels he has to grab everything available. Another bee in my bonnet. If w echange the education system to help people be more self-actualise? and there are ways to do that, then everyone would be great individually, a utopian world. I did go to Summerhill School as a pupil , so obviously I'll have differing views to other people. Someone who steps outside the box a bit. Q: In Summerhill you could have individualism , people encouraged to be theirselves, to be creative and at the same time , trying to have a community. So 2 apparently opposing forces, without one dominating the other. I think you have had to grow up in that environment to understand it, how it works. I feel privileged to have gone there. Q: Is Summehil where teaching is based on heuristic principles. ?, learning by doing. No not at all, Summerhill says here are classes, they are standard classes . Go to them is fine, but if you don't want to go them , go and build a tree-hut or go to the woodwork shop and bukd something, its your free choice. But what you shall not do , Summerhill very strong on this, you shall not interfere with other people. Interfere with other peple and they have the right to bring that to the attention of the community. Q: Did people work together on combined projects , whether cleaning the kitchens . No one hierarchy saying, I'm above that, everyone is equal. Even the teachers have to be involved. Absolutely, yes. Democratic decisions always. A community based on democratic decisions . Where is the school? Near Aldburgh , a little town called Laston? , still runs today. I phoned up the headmistress last year, because we were going to that area for a funeral , and she recognised my voice from 40 years ago. She showed me around the school and what was going on. Q: People come in all sorts of types and some people are just simply greedy. We need to push people to being towards emotional stability. To do tht bring up children appropriately so they ar e more mentally stable than otherwise. People are raised through rottrn times. The current national curriculum is probably one of the best tools for keeping therapists in business that could hav e been invented. B35

Tuesday 17 April 2018, Prof Ivan Haigh, NOC Southampton : Sea level rise and coastal flooding: past, present and future. 32 people, 1.5 hours A graph of time from seconds to millions of years and on the other axis, space from a mm to 40,000km the whole earth. Over all these time and space scales, se-levels vary. At one extreme turbulence and ripples , the microscopic ripples you see if you blow over a cup. A bit higher up waves and swell and seiching, after someone in Switserland who noticed that when wind blew over a lake , if the wind stopped, the lake would oscillate for several days. A seiche sometimes occurs in some harbours, the gentle seaiche oscillation. Then tsunamis , they are quite short lived at a coastline. May spend days travelling in the oceans and affect large sections of coastline. Beyond that is storm surges, the movement of the sea caused by weather. We tend to get 2 catagories of storm surge, tropical storms which are huricanes , again affecting long lenghts of coast but tend to last about 12 hours at a coastline. Then tides, 2 bands of energy, semi-diurnal tides which we have in the UK, 2 tides a day. We also get diurnal tides , in western Australia for example and the Gulf of Mexico, 1 tide a day. We get extra-tropical storms the sort of system that affects the North Sea, tending to last about 2 days. We have seasonal effects like El Nino oscillation , wind can blow on-shore for 6 months or blow off-shore for 6 months , that can raise the level of seas. In the Uk sealevels change by about 10cm between winter and summer, cooler and warmer water. Then we have climate change effects , then beyond that glacial cycles and sea levels change by hundreds of metres. Q: Through the Channel on the French side the sea level can be highe rthan the English side at certain times. Most of that is due to tides it comes in , Coriolas force pulls it to the right , but also strong wind induces that. Q: I was thinking currents. Currents tend to be seasonal, strong currents for part of the year . A lot going on and a lot more . Of all those, 3 fundamental things that change. I have 3 beakers with some water in. There are just 3 ways you can change the level in the beaker. Add liquid from 1 cup to another, add or subtract. Displace it , by squeezing the cup, liqid is incompressable, the same volume, change the shape of the container. Move the water by blowing wind over the surface , to one side of the basin, change the shape of the basin, or you could put something else into the basin, but fundamentally you are moving the water. Change the temperature , put it in a freezer or a heat surce under the cup. Or we could change the salt content. So what are waves doing in regard to these 3 fundamental proceses. Waves move , tsunamis move, tides move, climate change is doing all 3 . The world is heating up , oceans expanding, ice is melting land-based ice is melting, also climate change can alter wind patterns, which might lower SL in some areas and increase it at others. Q: Where would you put air pressure? Water is incompressible , so what air pressure is doing , can suck water in from other areas or pushing it outwards. Air pressure i sa key change , I'd put it under the move box. I will focus on the longer term changes, not tides or waves. So mainly the slow century scale changes in SL. SL had been relatively flat for about 2000 years , averaging out al these processes taking the maen . Over the last 150 years it has risen about 20cm. The key questions over SL rise. Cost of coastal infrastructure damage from flooding or inundation. Reduction of the landmass, coastal wetlands Environmental impact to the wetlands Populations would have to move. Could change weather patterns Low level lakes will become saline. As SL rises you need less severe storms to give the same previous SL rise. So more inundation, and storm damage to infrastructure. An estuary in W Australia, with an unusual shape. The area that would be inundated in a 1 in 1000 year flood. But if we raise SL by 1m a significanly larger amount of land would be inundated by the same event. Its difficult to give an example as SL have risen by only about 0.2m. Sharp's Island in Chesapeake Bay, or rather was. In 18C it housed about 100 people, a farm a, a school , a few hotels. A combination of SL rise and land sinking, in 1950 just a room sized patch of land left and even that is now under water . Wetland loss. Wetlands important for a great rnge of reasons , regulating diseases, biodiversity. In Maryland USA , the natural wetland creeks , with SLR just gets lost. Those areas absorb CO2 , they do lots of things. With SLR comes coastal erosion, The Holderness coast eroded by about 2km , SLR speeds up that rate. A number of houses in that area people are still paying off mortgages on houses that have disappeared into the sea. Saltwater intrusion more important in other countries than the UK. Like the Maldives, low lying atol, a freshwater lens and with rising SL seawater will get into that lens. Peole often talk of SLR directly affecting small islands but while still above the sea , communities cant live there because of the loss of fresh water. Raising water tables, a lot in the States. Fresh water supply underlying but SL rise can push that whole supply upward. Some towns are now getting flooding in basements because SL rise is pushing up that water table. The 5 main key changes. The historiacal context. We cant directly measure SL in thr longer term. Over several hundred thousand years or less. We can use proxies for indirect measurement. We can use saltmarshes , use archaeology a number of sites under water that wern't. From that we can estimate how much SL has risen. We can use spieleotherms, stalagtites . Coral reefs which tend to follow where SL is. We can use geology using sediment cores like ice-cores. With saltmarshes , they tend to have different layers and species of plants at different depths according to whether regularly covered by tide or not. As SL rise, the saltmarshes move backwards. As long as SLs have risen steadily , you can take a core and count the phoram microscopic creatures. Near the sea there are certain types single cell species, and towards the land are different species. This can tell you back about 1000 years, a prof in York does a lot of work on this. A number of areas from archaeology. One example is Roman fish dams, near the sea, almost like aquaculture raising fish in them. These dams are now under water , so we can get a reasonable estimate of SL about 2000 years ago in the Med. Sometimes marks. James Ross Clark went to Tasmania about 150 years ago , he carved a mark on a rock near Hobart that he estimated the MSL at that time was. A friend of mine, John Hunter spent about 3 years doing measurements there and get a good estimate for there over 150 years. Spieleotherms - stalgmites on the ground only form if there is air , if the cave goes underwater, they cannot form. In Bermuda many such caves and a group in Oxford has permission to take some. They form a tree-ring like structure . We can split open the stalgmites and date the tree-rings and see when that stalagmite stopped growing. So SL was at that level about that time , again as an estimate. For corals , different species at different depths under water, mostly less than 50m of sea surface. As SL rise ,the corals migrate as they need light or they die out. Again drilling into corals we can estimate SLR from these dead corals , now very much below current SL. 100,000 to millions of years ago, beach lines at different levels. Sediment cores, especially from the Red Sea . None are very accurate but taken together gives a good idea of SLR over tens of thousands of years. So putting climate change into context. SLs have varied by up to 120metres over the last 500,000 years. That very much relates to the ice-ages. When the world was much covered by ice 25,000 ya , SL was about 100m lower than today. Certainly 2 occassions between 5 main ice-ages SLs were higher than they are today under different climate change conditions. The general theory is this relates to Milankovitch cycles , small wobbles in the Earth's rotation , planets coming in and out of phase causing ice-ages and out of ice-ages. In ice-ages water is stored as ice and SL drops, then inter-glacial stsage SLs rise. So SLs have moved at least 130m . Zoom into the last ice-age and info from corals and 24000ya SL were a lot lower than today. SL gradually rose and then stabilised for the last 7000 years. Particularly in hte last 2000 years SLs were virtually unchanged. Fortunately that coincided with a massive growth in human population. I don't think human population could have increased so much with the previous amount of SL rise. A stable SL allowed us to build coastal communities. In recent times that has started to rise. Without climate change we'd have expected SL to have continued this long stable period and eventually go into another ice-age and drop away. What the UK looked like 20,000ya everything down to about Birmingham was covered in ice . Thr North Sea was land and as SL rose , at about 15000ya , the Irish Sea formed . About 12,000ya water came into the English Channel but we were still connected to France. Then the first Brexit , when England formed about 9000ya. Coming toward the present the North Sea enlarged, but 10,000ya no North sea . In modern times we have instrumentation , tide gauges and satellites to monitor. With the paleo stuff there is a lot of uncertainty, but now much more confidence, measuring SL to within mm now. Around the end of the 19C SLs started to rise. Plots of the 3 longest run tide gauges i nthe world, Brest almost continuous 200 years except around wars, San Fransisco for over 100 years and one in Poland on the Baltic . That rise cannot be explained by natural ice-age cycles , something clearly is happening. Its not a smooth rise SLs go up and down, a lot of noise , the underlying signal is a rise. I get fed up wiht people taking 10 years of data , you canshow things are falling. Take a long enough period, the noise goes , and you can see the rise. Q: You ran quickly over not attributing that recent rise to a coming ice-age, why? If you take similar conditions in the past, particularly when SLs were higher than today. We should have that flat period continuing. Certainly the last inter-glacial we had similar sort of conditions and things remained stable, so some othe rprocess is involved, I'll return ot this later, the individual budget. Tide gauges back 100 years or so and satellites over the last 30 years for a true global picture. Over the 20C a definite SLR about 1.7mm per year but that rate has now doubled in the last 20 to 30 years. SLs are not rising everywhere, very spatially non-uniform. A map from satellites, the mean is 3mm per year over the whole globe. Some areas where its rising 10mm/yr so 3 times the mean. There are also regions where SLs have slightly fallen. You cannot rely on single sites . Taking Southampton , the long mean sea record at Soton that I digitised some years ago. So at Soton rising about 1.5mm per year over the last 70 years but take only the last 20 years then its about 3mm per yr. So quite close to the global average. Most of the UK is the same as the global average. The important point is that that rate is starting to accelerate. The 3 main components contributing. Land based ice, particularly from glaciers . The thermal expansion of water and the melting of ice-sheets. Arctic ice is not so important bu t the ice on Greenland and Antarctica are really important. We can estimate the individual components adding up and giving this SLR. In the last 50 or so years, thermal expansion accounts for 38% of that rise, the largest part ,40% has been from glaciers melting, Greenland only very small and Antarctic smaller contribution. Of the recent accelerated rise then 58% is due to thermal expansion. Less from glaciers because many of them have melted away. Greenland recent compoment has increase slightly. There is a lot of uncertaintly with Greenland and Antarctic. Various pics of a glacier 1885 a whole valley covered by a glacier, 1907, 1930 ,1950, 1970 to what we see today, nearly gone made its way into the sea. Just one glacier ,one of tens of thousands of glaciers. Greenland ice-cover pics 1992 ,2002, 2007 the affected areas dramatically changed. Antarctic has not changed that much. So to the future. The IPCC thousands of the world scientists every 7 years weigh up the evidence. They predict over the next 100 years SLR would be between 28cm and 1 metre, thats the likely range. The UK government have recently been working on this and I was helping with the Environment Agency. In 2009 they said it could between 11cm and 75 cm , a lot of uncertainty with it. Much of the uncertainty is down to what emissions will be in the next decades. There is a high end scenario of as much as 2metres although unlikely. Realistically without a major collapse of Antarctic ice , we're looking at about 1metre of SLR. The Paris Agreement was signed by about 165 countries. They promised they will hold the increase in global average temperature to well below 2 degrees, from pre-industrial level and persue efforts to limit it to 1.5 degrees. Recognising that this seriously reduces climate impacts. What is often omitted , limiting to 2 degrees there will be lots of benefits. Temperatures stabilised but one of the problems with SLR is that we are long term committed to SLR. Even if we cut C emissions now SLR will still carry on for 200 to 3 thousand years because there is a lot of inertia in the system. At the moment we've only heated the water surface, it takes hundreds of years for that heat to transfer down. Its the same with ice, start melting ice, it continues melting, it won't just stop. We will SLR even if we fulfill the Paris Agreement. To predict SLR into the future is computationally expensive using numerical models of the whole world, called GCM Global climate Models. They have to run on super-computers ,only 15 to 20 of these models are run around the world. Most have only run to 2100 for SLR predictions. We've developed a very simple model that will run on your smart phone. Type in CO2 modeller and download it onto your smart phone ( ) . We represent the whole Earth as a series of boxes. An atmosphere box , a vegetation box , soil and its interactions and 5 boxes that represent the oceans, right down to the 3mile deep ocean and the transfer of heat. All these boxes are the model reduced to the simplest form. We've run this model and tried to get it to adjust to certain temps . As its a simplified model, we can run it for hundreds of years , to see how the climate would respond. Beyond 2030 we cannot be sure, but we try to limit to 1.5 deg C . The high emissions scenario will increase temp by about 10 deg C, catastrophic. We've run the model with the out to year 2300 for 1.5, 2.5 , 3 , 4 and 10 deg C . I think we've missed the window for 1.5, not achievable . What is interesting for SL projection is even if we cut our emissions and stabilised to 1.5 deg , SL would continue rising for hundreds of years. With 1.5 deg, SLR would reach about +1m, bu tthe really scary thing is if we continue on our current track, without Paris Agreement, we will get at least 4.5m of SLR. We need to think long term . By 2100 it would not make much difference , with or without Paris Agreement, it only saves about 20cm of SLR, but if we act now we can save at least 3.5m . It is so important we make the PA work, not so much for us but our great great grandchildren. I just produced this yeasterday, a climate spiral animation, 0, 1, 2m SL, with and without the PA. This needs to be on a government level and on a personal level, each of us trying to do our own little part. If all the world's ice melted , about 80 metres of SLR in that. THe Uk would look very differnt , Southampton and Norwich would be gone. This can't happen ,certainly in the next 100 years, not physically possible to melt that fast. What can we do about SLR . The UK has developed shoreline management planning, dividing th e coast into stretches and determining the options. Some difficult choices as its very expensive to defend the coast. So a cost/benefit economic analysis if only defending a few houses. No active intervention on some coastlines , whether a pre-existing coastal defense there or not , nothing more will be done. A colleague in Germany did such a cost/benefit analysis and he reckons only about 8% of the world's coastline would be defended, the coastlines with majoe cities. Q: Thars fair enough if you compensate the people who will loose out but we're not doing that. I was at a meeting yeaterday in London yesterday where we discussed thuis very topic. At the moment the govt will not compensate individuals. We've just seen on TV in Norfolk of people losing their homes to the sea and they're still paying the mortgages. So making that decision , it must be tempered with something else. I would not like to make that decision. Q: We (representing New Forest National Park) are trying to work with DEFRA. We have to compensate the few people it will affect though. Similarly farmers need to be compensated, for lost farmland but we're not dong so, it seems very unfair. I don't like talking about this aspect. Unfortunately the sad reality is we don't have the money to defend the coast ecverywhere. I'd love to live in a house on the beach. Q: You will soon The government probably does not have the money to compensate everyone. Q: Its a matter of choices , they can spend money here or there, choosing not to defend some places, may mean putting resources elsewhere. The govt will have to make really tough decisions that will affect lives and I agree people should be compensated. Other stretches of coast we'll hold the line, definitely holding London. So the likes of the Thames Barrier, millions of pounds in flood defences. Other parts of coastline will have to be managed retreat. I'm working on a site in the Bristol Chanel, it tends to be farmland. About 40 such sites around the UK. The R Paret, they were spending millions of pounds on defending what was just farmland, no economic sense ot do so. They compensated the farmer , buying up the land and let the land flood. It would have been natural saltmarsh anyway. They put in a breach and designed a creek system to get the water going. When a storm surge happens , rather than water going up and flooding Bridgeport , there is now extra space where the water can go. Another benefit, it creates beautiful coastal habitat with walking paths for viewing seabirds. The govt has just released a big report on this , moving away from hard flood defences to more natural based vision. Nature is always best at protecting itself, things like mangroves and saltmarshes absorb the wave energy. Or go the other way, like in Dubai. advance the line the Palm island. In the Maldives they built an entitre island. We could adapt , to build floating houses , floating bridges and just live with flooding. In Bangladesh people want to live on the floodplain as its very fertile. As long as there is a good warning system. 2 or 3 days warning of flood due, they move livestock to introduced higher levels. Temporary low level structures get washed away , but they rebuild, and all are alive because of the elevated retreats. For our cities, build underground car parks which w ecan let flood . Q&A As the ocean levels rise, the amount of moisture in the air increases which cause white cloud to form and cools the Earth, as the clouds reflect sunlight back out. As temps increases it will reach a temp , might be quite high I don't know , that stabilieses. I'm not a climate scientist and know little of that, I'm very much #sea-level aspects. All I can say is SLs are rising and we can say which components are involved. The Grace? satellite up there can monitor water and we are finding more groundwater is making its way into the oceans. We are also finding the building of dams slows down SLR as water is stored on land, but a small component. There is feedback systems in the climate and a key feedback is the albedo of the ice, less ice absorbs more heat. Q: ? ? waves ? ? Its quite small , thousands of years. It doesnt affect SL much , it affects geology. The energy of the tides gets dissipated and over time that is causing the moon to move further and further away. But its very small, on our human timescale. Q: Remind us ? SL would rise ? About 80m , Greenland on its own about 8m and Antartica if all melted somewhere between 65 and 75 metres. A recent article shows that Antartica is gaining ice which they think has been preventing SLR. The main concern with Antartica is if a major collapse of the ice sheet. Warmer water is getting under the ice and if it collapses it could allow much more ice to move off the land, presently barred from doing so. If such a collapse then SL could rise several metres quite quickly. I've read recently that the gulf stream is slowing down, is that complicating the issue? 2 papers in Nature, I know both authors , both papers show that AMOC , of which the Gulf Streamis part of. Our climate is warmer than it would be without this, but over 100s or 1000s of years that changes. That won't affect SL that much but would have huge impact on our weather patterns. Interestingly it does affect SL off the coast of USA. The gulf stream causes SL at the US coast to be lower and higher in the Atlantic. With less current flow then less geostrophic flow . So SLs are rising faster along the American Atlantic coast as a result. A regional hotspot of SLR. What sort of temperatures required to get full Greenland ice melt? You wouldn't in hundreds of years. Take an ice-cube and double the temp in the room, even an ice cube does not instantly melt, it takes 100s of years, considering 3km thickness of ice on Greenland. A colleague in ANU oz, has a figure I don't remember what, something like 10+ deg , but sustained over 100s of years. What %ge of human CO2 emissions compared to natural processes adding to global warming? I'm no expert on the atmospheric side of things, from 1970 very large component. SLs can vary 5 or 10cm purely naturely by El Nino oscillations , changes in wind patterns and amospheric pressure changes. Perhaps 80 to 90% of the warming since 1970 is human source. Even if we reduced emissions, the other countries are coming up , far larger than us, and negate by many times what we will save.? A few months back I met with community leaders from the Solomon Islands , the Maldives as well, they have the lowest emission rates in the world, yet they are feeling SLR effects first. Whether you believe in climate change or not, SLs are rising. For 150 years its shown no sign of sustained reversal. 139 cities with populations greater than 1 million on the coast , climate change or not, SLs are rising. Soton Archaeology Unit has plenty of evidence of SL having risen by 5m in the last 5,000 years. Where does your figure of SLs being constant for 7,000 years come from? There are 2 components to SLR, absolute SL rise and there is relative SLR. I skipped that bit in my talk. You have to be very careful with this. Satellites measure absolute SLR , just changes in the volume of the oceans. Tide gauges measure relative SL, so SLR and also changes in the level of the land. In the UK we have isostatic adjustment . We think the land is stable but the land is moving. Think of it as a foam mattress, you dive onto such a mattress it sinks under you, you get off and it will take hours to recover. For the UK in the last ice-age 20,000 ya almost all north England was covered in ice. That ice melted but its taken tens of thousands of years for the land to respond. So northern England is rising because it was weighed down by the ice, the land rising about 1mm per year there, southern England is sinking. If you look at Iceland or Stockholm SLs are actually falling , not because SLs are falling there, its the land is rising faster than SLs are rising so locally it looks like its falling there. So what you have here is a very localised relative SLR of 5m over 7,000 years. Q: The hampshire basin itself is prone to sinking, the gravel terraces don't match across the South coast here, so you can't single this out from the isostatic rebound, its more complicated. One of the key localised contributors is groundwater extraction. Bangkok is a perfect example. Everyone in Bangkok has their own well and the whole of Bangkok has sunk by 2m. This local effect is 20 times the effect of global sea level rise. This is human change but not climate related. Tokyo has sunk by 4m . In Bangkok there ar esome telegraph poles that used ot be on land and now in the ocean. Unpicking these things is difficult. In Bangkok the local SLR since 1950 has accelerated massively. People though that was climate change, but it was just local land subsidence . They had to put a law in place not allowing wells , fined a lot of miney if they do and that seems to have stabilised that problem there. Itals occure in New Orleans, part of the reason the effects from Katrina were so severe. People get obsessed by climate change but there are other things , some can have larger effects. If you have a surge coming in off the Atlantic , so at Newlyn its say 0.5m above astronomic prediction and lets say its a neap tide, it comes up to the Isle of Wight and tends to be a bit higher locally here. For exactly the same circumstances, the same wind but occuring on a spring tide, would the surge effect component here be higher than the neap tide case. And extending on from that , with SL change , with more depth of water , for surges passing over , all else being the same , decades into the future, would the penetration over the land be more that it would have been before apart from the simple SL rise itself.? These are indirect effects , we call them tide-surge interaction. If you get 2 containers and blow over them. The wind is more effective on rising water when shallow than when its deep. This is why the North Sea shows serious storm surge effects as it is so shallow. This is why storm surges in the North Sea are much bigger than in the English Channel which is deeper. If a storm occurs on a neap tide , often the surge is bigger than if it occured on a spring tide. Not the total water depth of course, just the surge component. You often get this with huricanes and a surge at low water is mor eof a surge than at high water. Not the total water level , just the meteorological induced component. A storm surge travels as a shallow-water wave, its speed is dependent on the water depth . An equation square root of g * h , gravity and height. Raise the water level and the wave wil ltravel faster because its deeper. As SL rises it should actually very slightly reduce storm surge components , but as SLs rise , waves can break closer to the shore than before. Waves move until a certain depth and then break . Indirect effects, a lot of work being done on them, but all relatively small, cm not metres. Q: So we all move to Scotland? We've built in all the wrong places. Go on Googlemaps and look at Winchester, its on a river flood plain. Rivers are supposed to flood , its good for the land. We've built there , but the problem is we can't change that. I think the govt should have stricter rules on wher e you can build. There should also be law that any building on flood plains should be on stilts , a legacy problem. Q: If the gulf stream moves then Scotland could become permofrost? I was in a taxi and the driver said he will stop being a driver as he'd started an air conditioning business. He reckoned with climate change, mor epeople will want AC, he was genuinly serious. I could have told him that globally there wil lbe climate change but in the UK , perhaps a shutdown of the gulf stream and drop our temps . AC in the USA is one of the major energy consumers , hence climate change? When living in Oz I had an office with AC , 35 deg C outside and I was wearing a jumper inside, such a waste of energy. In the states its quite common for them to literally move house. Has anyone managed to jack up a house and mount on floats and dolphins a standard brick-built house? They've done it in Chesapeake Bay. A house that has been destroyed about 10 times in the last 20 years but it always gets federal aid to rebuild it. to me thats criminal , say flood 3 times and then no more aid. Its easily to talk here about this, but if you've been flooded its an horrendous experience. If I lived on the coast I probably would not want to move and be very annoyed having to pay off a mortgage on a house that fell off an undermined cliff. There are some examples in the Thames Valley , rich people, who've done exactl;y as you've said. Brick built buildings, completely underpinned and mounted on hydraulic jacks . If you have millions you can afford to do it. They are fixed to a base thats in the ground , jacks in place and instead of floating, they are jacked up as required. An Eel-pie island one is a house in a tank , and as the tank floods from the Thames , the house floats up. Some incredible engineering around, in Japan there are gates that self-close . 13:08 W78 to be continued

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